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Linux Directory Structure Explained with diagram

Penulis : Unknown on Friday, July 18, 2014 | 11:48 PM

Friday, July 18, 2014

Have you wondered why certain programs are located under /bin, or /sbin, or /usr/bin, or /usr/sbin?
For example, less command is located under /usr/bin directory. Why not /bin, or /sbin, or /usr/sbin? What is the different between all these directories?
In this article, let us review the Linux filesystem structures and understand the meaning of individual high-level directories.

1. / – Root

  • Every single file and directory starts from the root directory.
  • Only root user has write privilege under this directory.
  • Please note that /root is root user’s home directory, which is not same as /.

2. /bin – User Binaries

  • Contains binary executables.
  • Common linux commands you need to use in single-user modes are located under this directory.
  • Commands used by all the users of the system are located here.
  • For example: ps, ls, ping, grep, cp.

3. /sbin – System Binaries

  • Just like /bin, /sbin also contains binary executables.
  • But, the linux commands located under this directory are used typically by system aministrator, for system maintenance purpose.
  • For example: iptables, reboot, fdisk, ifconfig, swapon

4. /etc – Configuration Files

  • Contains configuration files required by all programs.
  • This also contains startup and shutdown shell scripts used to start/stop individual programs.
  • For example: /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/logrotate.conf

5. /dev – Device Files

  • Contains device files.
  • These include terminal devices, usb, or any device attached to the system.
  • For example: /dev/tty1, /dev/usbmon0

6. /proc – Process Information

  • Contains information about system process.
  • This is a pseudo filesystem contains information about running process. For example: /proc/{pid} directory contains information about the process with that particular pid.
  • This is a virtual filesystem with text information about system resources. For example: /proc/uptime

7. /var – Variable Files

  • var stands for variable files.
  • Content of the files that are expected to grow can be found under this directory.
  • This includes — system log files (/var/log); packages and database files (/var/lib); emails (/var/mail); print queues (/var/spool); lock files (/var/lock); temp files needed across reboots (/var/tmp);

8. /tmp – Temporary Files

  • Directory that contains temporary files created by system and users.
  • Files under this directory are deleted when system is rebooted.

9. /usr – User Programs

  • Contains binaries, libraries, documentation, and source-code for second level programs.
  • /usr/bin contains binary files for user programs. If you can’t find a user binary under /bin, look under /usr/bin. For example: at, awk, cc, less, scp
  • /usr/sbin contains binary files for system administrators. If you can’t find a system binary under /sbin, look under /usr/sbin. For example: atd, cron, sshd, useradd, userdel
  • /usr/lib contains libraries for /usr/bin and /usr/sbin
  • /usr/local contains users programs that you install from source. For example, when you install apache from source, it goes under /usr/local/apache2

10. /home – Home Directories

  • Home directories for all users to store their personal files.
  • For example: /home/john, /home/nikita

11. /boot – Boot Loader Files

  • Contains boot loader related files.
  • Kernel initrd, vmlinux, grub files are located under /boot
  • For example: initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic, vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic

12. /lib – System Libraries

  • Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /bin and /sbin
  • Library filenames are either ld* or lib*.so.*
  • For example:,

13. /opt – Optional add-on Applications

  • opt stands for optional.
  • Contains add-on applications from individual vendors.
  • add-on applications should be installed under either /opt/ or /opt/ sub-directory.

14. /mnt – Mount Directory

  • Temporary mount directory where sysadmins can mount filesystems.

15. /media – Removable Media Devices

  • Temporary mount directory for removable devices.
  • For examples, /media/cdrom for CD-ROM; /media/floppy for floppy drives; /media/cdrecorder for CD writer

16. /srv – Service Data

  • srv stands for service.
  • Contains server specific services related data.
  • For example, /srv/cvs contains CVS related data.
comments (11) | |

Tally ERP 9 with crack (Full Version) Free download

Penulis : Unknown on Friday, May 2, 2014 | 3:02 AM

Friday, May 2, 2014

Tally ERP 9 with crack (Full Version) Free download (Updated Link)
Tally 9 (Full Version) Free download

Tally.ERP 9 is the latest offering of the Tally software series. As with all Tally products, rapid updates are made available for the lifetime of the product via periodic releases, thereby providing the high level of business capability that millions of users trust. Highlights include a very light product footprint, immediate access to new features and enhancements, easy data migration and more. This migration is recommended for all Tally 9 licenses.

The Highlights in Tally.ERP 9 Release 3.6 :
• Enhanced Audit Capabilities
• Banking Enhancements
• Integrated Communication
• Live Update
• Enhanced Password Security

Size ("20 Mb")
Thanks for Downloading...Tally ERP 9 with crack (Full Version) Free download
comments (10) | |

Turbo c++ 4.5 full version For Windows 7 and Windows XP free download

turbo c++ 4.5 full version For Windows 7 and Windows Xp free download By
Borland Turbo C++ 4.5 Full Version
Turbo C + + is a C + + compiler with an integrated IDE that was developed by Borland, known because its speed in compilation and linking. This product is part of the family Borland compilers that is very popular  including Turbo Pascal, Turbo Basic, Turbo Prolog and Turbo C. Turbo C + + is a successor of Turbo C which is a further development with uniformity of procedure in the compiler as well as the manner contained in the Turbo Pascal 5.5 adding object functionality in Turbo Pascal versions previously. But unlike the Turbo Pascal, Turbo C + + always follow and maintain the standards that apply to C + + language.
turbo c++ 4.5 full version For Windows 7 and Windows Xp free download By
Compared with similar software in those days, Turbo C + + has some features compared to the others. Turbo C + + frees programmers from having to write complex programs, because based on object-oriented programming (OOP, Object Oriented Programming). This allows the program more quickly developed.

Thanks for Downloading....Turbo c++ 4.5 full version
comments (81) | |

Download Internet Download Manager 2014

Internet Download Manager 2014 to increase download speeds by up to 5 times, and the division of loading and using multiple connections to reduce the time it takes to download, Internet Download Manager integrates with the most popular browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera,the program can successfully stripped URLs to download video clips from sites. It also supports integration with anti-virus software as well. Thus, all downloads will be scanned.

Internet Download Manager 2014 (IDM) integrates itself automatically in web browsers supported, contains a list of Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome and Opera, are dealt with downloads automatically by the download manager (IDM) and not the browser, and displays information about the download and allowsyou add a description if you want.
All popular browsers and applications are supported! Internet Download Manager supports all versions of popular browsers.
 Download Speed. Internet Download Manager can accelerate downloads by up to 5 times due to its intelligent dynamic file segmentation technology.
  You may simply drag and drop links to IDM, and drag and drop complete files out of Internet Download Manager.
Internet Download Manager supports proxy servers, ftp and http protocols, firewalls, redirects, cookies, authorization, MP3 audio and MPEG video content processing

Download Internet Download Manager 2014 - Free Download
Operating Systems: Windows 7, Windows 8,Windows 8.1, Windows Vista, Windows XP
Developer: I.D.M
 version 6.19 build 8 - (Released: 29 April 2014)
File Size: 5.6 MB

comments (32) | |

Kaspersky Antivirus 2014 Free Download Full Version

Kaspersky Antivirus 2014 Free Download Full Version

Kaspersky Antivirus 2014 Free Download Full Version

Over 200,000 new malware items being launched every day, Its very tough job to protect our personal stuff from this viruses, Generally we use antivirus software to kill and remove malware from our PC. Kaspersky launched 2014 version of their antivirus for windows pc. This is one of the best antivirus available in market, best thing about kaspersky antivirus is that it searches all unknown antivirus with its unique integrated technology based on the second-generation heuristic analysis principle.

Key Features

  • By using Control Center of this antivirus you can schedule the scan or set its updates automatically which will help kaspersky to download updates, scan and fix problem of your PC automatically.
  • As we all know that windows 8 is not sporting most of the antivirus software but with latest technology and updates Kaspersky Antivirus 2014 supports windows 8 PC.
  • This antivirus cleans the damaged file from your PC and make it even more faster.
  • Blocks adware and Spyware.
  • This antivirus software scan files in real time when you access your PC.
  • Alerts provide all the information necessary for informed user decisions.
  • Restores correct system settings after removing malicious software
  • Scans operating system and installed applications for vulnerabilities

Download It

Before Download it make sure that you have one of these OS Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Vista, Windows XP .
Total File Size: 233.38 MB
comments (33) | |

Live Cricket Streaming - Live Football Streaming

Penulis : Unknown on Sunday, March 2, 2014 | 2:28 AM

Sunday, March 2, 2014

Hello, and welcome! To select a channel to watch live, select one from the navigation bar above. You can find what matches are streaming live in the ticker above the page. If you find any problems with a stream, please post in the chatbox.

Click Below Link

Live Cricket Streaming - Live Football Streaming




comments (7) | |

Aurora 3D Animation Maker 13.01.04.

Penulis : Unknown on Friday, February 14, 2014 | 8:12 AM

Friday, February 14, 2014

Aurora 3D Animation Maker 13.01.04 Incl Key gen
Aurora 3D Animation Maker 13.01.04 Incl Key gen Download Free Software
Key-Frame Animation:
Using just a single timeline, you will be able to control all aspects of your animation, including the length, playback speed, and more.

Particles Effects:
You will have a more splendid scene effects, such as space radiation, rain, snow, fireworks, smoke, etc., with these, you are free to improve the scenes, when you need to attract the eye.

Internal Animation Style:
Every object can have many types of animations, such as rotate, swing, beat, wave, fade, typewriter, pulse.

3D Manipulator:
Drag the button at the right-bottom of an object, and you can extrude the text or shape.
You can control the object position, rotate and scale at X/Y/Z.

Animation Templates:
Get a lot of 3D title and logo templates. Make you own 3D title animation in minutes for web and movie. Don’t need the basic of 3D Design.

Installation Steps:
1. Extract rar
2. Install Aurora 3D Animation Maker (do not run the program)
3. Run Keygen > "Product" set to: Aurora 3D Animation Maker v11.0 > "Registry info": enter you name > Click genrenare > Click Patch > Search Animation3D.exe (C:\Program Files\Aurora3D\Animation3D) > Click Open
4. Run Aurora 3D Animation program > Register the program:
   - Registry Info: Enter you name (from keygen)
   - User name    : Enter whatever you want
   - User Email   : Enter you Email
   - Serial key   : Paste serial key (from keygen)
5. Support the software developers.
comments (6) | |

Download Line For PC

Line For PC

Line is a cross program messaging app which let additional feature to make free calls understanding that too within unlimited volume. There usually are no limits on how much you may use Line with PC, android, iPhone, Nokia, BlackBerry.

Features of Line for PC & Mobiles

Let see what all features Line for PC any other mobiles got for users down here. All the features are common on all the platforms.

   1. The key feature or maybe benefit how the Line allows unlimited voice calls. The product quality depends in your data connection speed also it works about both mobile and Wi-Fi connection. Down course, one you’re calling to need to have the same app about Android, new iphone 4 installed.

  2. The next thing for used this amazing free application is made for the endless instant messaging. Yes away from course the messaging will be free and there is no limit about how many you possibly can send in a day. The fast messaging also uses your computer data connection which means you don’t should get a specific SMS package. The delivery time on the instant messages is also very rapid (almost instantly).

How to Install Line on PC?
Well their is one official version out so that you can download Line for PC directly from their website and its available for Windows 7, Mac OS X as well as Windows 8.
     E  Download Line for PC (Windows)  (Windows8) 
     E  Download Line App on MAC

If you don’t like the official Computer version? Then below I have given out unofficial version which we are going to use by Android Emulator.

You can install this App very easily, follow the steps mentioned below.
  • First install the BlueStacks Android emulator on your Computer. You can get the software for free for Windows, Linux and Mac.
  • After installing the BlueStacks, search for the application and you’ll get it there.
  • Download it and it will get installed automatically.
That’s it! Now you can use Line on PC.
comments (4) | |

Download Windows 8.1 Activator - All Editions

Microsoft windows 8. 1 Activators can be located everywhere, virtually in most tech website far too! A large number of cracks fail to activate your current Microsoft windows 8. 1, In case you have the newest Microsoft windows 8. 1. But this kind of specific KMSpico most newest activator is different from all these activators. That functions upon Virtually any windows 8. 1 Edition,Build.And the finest case is activator will not cause just about any warnings .
Download Windows 8.1 Activator

Windows 8.1 Complete Activator
This Activator can activate (any build/32 bit/64 bit all)
·         Windows 8.1 Professional / Professional N
·         Windows 8.1 Enterprises / Enterprises N
·         Windows 8.1 ProWMC/Core – (only for 45 days)
·         Windows Server 2008/2008R2
·         Windows Server 2012 R2 (Server Standard,Data Center,Essentials)
·         Windows 8 Professional / Professional N
·         Windows 8 Enterprises / Enterprises N
·         Windows 8 ProWMC/Core – (only for 30 days)
·         Microsoft Office 2010
·         Microsoft Office 2013
·         Windows Vista Bussines /Enterprise
·         Windows 7 Professional /Enterprise

Download Windows 8.1 Activator

Download Windows 8.1 Activator
How to Activate 
If you have tried any other activator (Win8One, and many others.. ) you want to do a new reinstall of Windows 8. 1 before trying this activator. Otherwise it won't work and you will end up with zero success! Anyway you can attempt it if you wish.

1.     Disable any virus guards/Firewalls/Windows Smart Screen first
2.     Download and install Activator
3.     When the setup finishes it will stuck at the end ( i dunno why :/)
4.     Forget about setup and go to ‘C:\Program Files\KMSpico’ folder
5.     Now wait till Setup closes itself (this will take some time,if it doesn’t close.kill it using task manager)
6.     Now open ‘KMSELDI.exe’ from folder
7.     Click tokens backup button which is with a arrow facing down icon(Click yes in next message box)
8.     After that click Red button
9.     Wait till it says program completed ,activator will close itself
10.  Now you are Done!
11.  Check your Windows 8.1 computer properties 
12.  Activated  !
13.  Restart to remove if watermarks are still there
·         New reinstallation connected with Windows 8. 1 is usually recommended before by using this activator.
·         You do not need an internet connection to activate Windows of Office
·         You must have .net 4.0  to run the activator (pre-installed with Windows 8.1)
·         This particular activation is permanent. You can install any kind of Windows update after initiating.
·         If you have a genuine copy regarding Windows, This Activator will not touch your license even if you press the actual Red Button.
·         This is the latest along with final create of KMSpico. Version 9. 3. 1 produced by ELDI
 Download ( both activators are same,just zip and rar)
comments (63) | |

Use Whatsapp On Pc Without Bluestacks

Hello Readers! i promised during my last post“ Get Whatsapp for computer (Windows XP/7/8) “, Let me tell you that the way to how to use Whatsapp without Bluestacks or any other App App or Android mobile phone simulator such as Youwave. i earlier instructed that Whatsapp is just about the most well known messaging app available for smartphones, that is why people which don’t own a smartphone choose to use that via  there laptops or computers . Whatsapp is becoming so popular that Nokia explained out Whatsapp for Asha, it’s one of the most famous feature phone in India. Now in case you are one of these people who wish to install Whatsapp on thier phone without installing any app player or android simulator for PC, then you definately are in right place.

use whatsapp on pc without app player
There can be many causes of not using app players, some ones are bulky, they might need high configuration, they need graphic cards to running or may be you don’t trust them to be installed on your PC. Don’t worry We have an application which will let you enjoy to use Whatsapp on your pc even whether it is years outdated, even if it do not have a graphic card, all things you would like are a working PC with Windows 7, windows 7 or windows 8, a internet connection and a mobile number to build your new Whatsapp accounts (not needed in case you already have a Whatsapp account).
Now just follow with the steps given below to Download Whatsapp on your PC without Bluestacks or any App Player.
Whatsapp on PC with out Bluestacks
Use Whatsapp on your PC
in this trick you will download a software called Wassapp that may act as Whatsapp on your pc. Now before downloading it you have to understand what exactluy Wassapp is usually? So without wasting of time I am going to tell you about it.
Whatsapp on PC with out Bluestacks

Wassapp is unofficial version of Whatsapp intended for Computers, and also particularly windows PC’s. It is much smaller in size than any app player on internet and it doesn’t have any system requirement. And don’t worry it is clean, free from any malware.
How to Use Wassapp on your PC?
1.  To start with Download Wassapp for Windows.
2. When download gets completed double click the downloaded setup file and install it.
3. When installation was completed start Wassapp using desktop shortcut.
4. Enter your  mobile number and security password..
5. And then either click Login or Register. Login if anyone who is already using Whatsapp through your number or register if you don’t have an account.
6. Enjoy, now add you friends to your list from using contacts and chat with them for free.
Make sure you to create a free account on Whatsapp using a mobile just before using account on wassapp because some times it exhibits error while creating or registering a new account. If you are still having any problem in following any portion of this trick just leave your massage, we will reply you as soon as possible
comments (9) | |

Easy Ways To Make Money Online

How to Make Money Online
Online is thrust with regard to hard working for talented people, I'm sure everybody have some talent, it really is on you, when you will come to know "your talent", online is the best place to know your talent and skill, because if you would like know your talent then you need to start doing a thing that will lead you to know your skills.
May be you want those ways, which will help you to make money online, so allow me to share those ways-
1. Blogging
Blogging is most frequent and you'll make lots of money by blogging but their particular is awful side of computer that you could not build an income over night. If anyone don't have patience then blogging is not for anyone.. It requires lot of efforts along with patience. But once having established successful blog you can make lots of money by simply monetizing your site. But if you need to earn a number of real quick way then below are some other methods to earn money online. However in case you are school student then must start your blog today because you have plenty of time require for blogging and before you will enter in college you will be earning good cost. We Are still working about blogging it truly is the best way to earn money online.
2. Earn Money Online As a Freelancer
Freelance is the great way to earn money online along with free mind, here is the thing available for you, actually you can earn unlimited income, but the important matter is you have to be master with your field, because there are lots of freelancers as if you in the world those desired to make income.
May be that you are thinking, how can you find these jobs, yes this is the main thing of this part, once again it can be quiet difficult to acquire out real jobs.
I got lot of websites these are providing this support but I'd like to inform you only best websites- 

This is a great platform to be effective for some others and earn money, no matter in which country you are living, peoples like work not existing place, when you have capability to complete work then this is the great place to show the talent, because world of peoples are existing here to see someone expertise.
3. Uploading Videos on YouTube
Everyone have used youtube to watch videos but never considered to earn money by youtube. Yes you can make some money by Signing up for Youtube partner program. Google typically invites individuals to their program if your videos are usually hit on YouTube when a lot more like and views. Then you might display adsense ads on the videos.
Not much but study little video editing that you might search on the internet. Start creating quality movies and join for youtube program. Below are list of some countries where youtube partnership is available. It is a terrific way to earn money online. Some peoples are earning over 10k$ inside a month that is a great amount.
Argentina, Quotes, Brazil, Europe, the Czech Republic, Malaysia, Spain, Portugal, the British isles, India, Ireland in europe, Israel, Croatia, Japan, Fresh Zealand, Mexico, the Holland, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden and the United States 
4. Make Money Online via Sharing Your Files
You may not think you have files, those are created by you and those files are really useful for others, then you are not doing anything big that is you are not sharing your files from the internet to earn money online.
Really that is a good solution to make money online but you should have some helpful files for people.
For earning money by sharing files I found a site, which website is actually enable you to make money from a files, the name of the website is www. docstoc. com, after uploading some files you'll be able to apply for Google adsense, now Google adsense may show advertisements in your documents soon after getting approval from Google adsense.
5. Online Surveys
There are many web sites which will pay you for taking surveys. The essence such companies or even website should be to get feedback and do market research on a product. This is easiest between all ways right here to make money online and. Sign up for as numerous websites you are able to and start taking surveys for making some additional bucks. Such Couple of sites are here.
  => SurveyScouts
  => Surveyhead
  => SurveySavvy
comments (11) | |
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